Database Commons a catalog of biological databases

Database Commons - CATH


Citations: 1488

z-index 98.21

Short name CATH
Full name
Description CATH is a classification of protein structures downloaded from the Protein Data Bank.
Year founded
Last update & version 3/26/2013    v4.1
Availability Free to all users
University/Institution hosted University College London
Address 636 Darwin Building,Gower Street,WC1E 6BT
City London
Country/Region United Kingdom
Contact name Ian Sillitoe
Contact email
Data type(s)
Major organism(s)
  • protein domain family
  • CATH: an expanded resource to predict protein function through structure and sequence. [PMID: 27899584]

    Natalie L Dawson, Tony E Lewis, Sayoni Das, Jonathan G Lees, David Lee, Paul Ashford, Christine A Orengo, Ian Sillitoe
    Nucleic acids research 2017:45(D1)
    1 Citations (Google Scholar as of 2017-02-15)

    Abstract: The latest version of the CATH-Gene3D protein structure classification database has recently been released (version 4.1, The resource comprises over 300 000 domain structures and over 53 million protein domains classified into 2737 homologous superfamilies, doubling the number of predicted protein domains in the previous version. The daily-updated CATH-B, which contains our very latest domain assignment data, provides putative classifications for over 100 000 additional protein domains. This article describes developments to the CATH-Gene3D resource over the last two years since the publication in 2015, including: significant increases to our structural and sequence coverage; expansion of the functional families in CATH; building a support vector machine (SVM) to automatically assign domains to superfamilies; improved search facilities to return alignments of query sequences against multiple sequence alignments; the redesign of the web pages and download site. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  • CATH: comprehensive structural and functional annotations for genome sequences. [PMID: 25348408]

    Ian Sillitoe, Tony E Lewis, Alison Cuff, Sayoni Das, Paul Ashford, Natalie L Dawson, Nicholas Furnham, Roman A Laskowski, David Lee, Jonathan G Lees, Sonja Lehtinen, Romain A Studer, Janet Thornton, Christine A Orengo
    Nucleic acids research 2015:43(Database issue)
    123 Citations (Google Scholar as of 2017-02-15)

    Abstract: The latest version of the CATH-Gene3D protein structure classification database (4.0, provides annotations for over 235,000 protein domain structures and includes 25 million domain predictions. This article provides an update on the major developments in the 2 years since the last publication in this journal including: significant improvements to the predictive power of our functional families (FunFams); the release of our 'current' putative domain assignments (CATH-B); a new, strictly non-redundant data set of CATH domains suitable for homology benchmarking experiments (CATH-40) and a number of improvements to the web pages. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  • New functional families (FunFams) in CATH to improve the mapping of conserved functional sites to 3D structures. [PMID: 23203873]

    Ian Sillitoe, Alison L Cuff, Benoit H Dessailly, Natalie L Dawson, Nicholas Furnham, David Lee, Jonathan G Lees, Tony E Lewis, Romain A Studer, Robert Rentzsch, Corin Yeats, Janet M Thornton, Christine A Orengo
    Nucleic acids research 2013:41(Database issue)
    199 Citations (Google Scholar as of 2017-02-15)

    Abstract: CATH version 3.5 (Class, Architecture, Topology, Homology, available at contains 173 536 domains, 2626 homologous superfamilies and 1313 fold groups. When focusing on structural genomics (SG) structures, we observe that the number of new folds for CATH v3.5 is slightly less than for previous releases, and this observation suggests that we may now know the majority of folds that are easily accessible to structure determination. We have improved the accuracy of our functional family (FunFams) sub-classification method and the CATH sequence domain search facility has been extended to provide FunFam annotations for each domain. The CATH website has been redesigned. We have improved the display of functional data and of conserved sequence features associated with FunFams within each CATH superfamily.

  • Extending CATH: increasing coverage of the protein structure universe and linking structure with function. [PMID: 21097779]

    Alison L Cuff, Ian Sillitoe, Tony Lewis, Andrew B Clegg, Robert Rentzsch, Nicholas Furnham, Marialuisa Pellegrini-Calace, David Jones, Janet Thornton, Christine A Orengo
    Nucleic acids research 2011:39(Database issue)
    127 Citations (Google Scholar as of 2017-02-15)

    Abstract: CATH version 3.3 (class, architecture, topology, homology) contains 128,688 domains, 2386 homologous superfamilies and 1233 fold groups, and reflects a major focus on classifying structural genomics (SG) structures and transmembrane proteins, both of which are likely to add structural novelty to the database and therefore increase the coverage of protein fold space within CATH. For CATH version 3.4 we have significantly improved the presentation of sequence information and associated functional information for CATH superfamilies. The CATH superfamily pages now reflect both the functional and structural diversity within the superfamily and include structural alignments of close and distant relatives within the superfamily, annotated with functional information and details of conserved residues. A significantly more efficient search function for CATH has been established by implementing the search server Solr ( The CATH v3.4 webpages have been built using the Catalyst web framework.

  • The CATH classification revisited--architectures reviewed and new ways to characterize structural divergence in superfamilies. [PMID: 18996897]

    Alison L Cuff, Ian Sillitoe, Tony Lewis, Oliver C Redfern, Richard Garratt, Janet Thornton, Christine A Orengo
    Nucleic acids research 2009:37(Database issue)
    210 Citations (Google Scholar as of 2017-02-15)

    Abstract: The latest version of CATH (class, architecture, topology, homology) (version 3.2), released in July 2008 (, contains 114,215 domains, 2178 Homologous superfamilies and 1110 fold groups. We have assigned 20,330 new domains, 87 new homologous superfamilies and 26 new folds since CATH release version 3.1. A total of 28,064 new domains have been assigned since our NAR 2007 database publication (CATH version 3.0). The CATH website has been completely redesigned and includes more comprehensive documentation. We have revisited the CATH architecture level as part of the development of a 'Protein Chart' and present information on the population of each architecture. The CATHEDRAL structure comparison algorithm has been improved and used to characterize structural diversity in CATH superfamilies and structural overlaps between superfamilies. Although the majority of superfamilies in CATH are not structurally diverse and do not overlap significantly with other superfamilies, approximately 4% of superfamilies are very diverse and these are the superfamilies that are most highly populated in both the PDB and in the genomes. Information on the degree of structural diversity in each superfamily and structural overlaps between superfamilies can now be downloaded from the CATH website.

  • The CATH domain structure database: new protocols and classification levels give a more comprehensive resource for exploring evolution. [PMID: 17135200]

    Lesley H Greene, Tony E Lewis, Sarah Addou, Alison Cuff, Tim Dallman, Mark Dibley, Oliver Redfern, Frances Pearl, Rekha Nambudiry, Adam Reid, Ian Sillitoe, Corin Yeats, Janet M Thornton, Christine A Orengo
    Nucleic acids research 2007:35(Database issue)
    271 Citations (Google Scholar as of 2017-02-15)

    Abstract: We report the latest release (version 3.0) of the CATH protein domain database ( There has been a 20% increase in the number of structural domains classified in CATH, up to 86 151 domains. Release 3.0 comprises 1110 fold groups and 2147 homologous superfamilies. To cope with the increases in diverse structural homologues being determined by the structural genomics initiatives, more sensitive methods have been developed for identifying boundaries in multi-domain proteins and for recognising homologues. The CATH classification update is now being driven by an integrated pipeline that links these automated procedures with validation steps, that have been made easier by the provision of information rich web pages summarising comparison scores and relevant links to external sites for each domain being classified. An analysis of the population of domains in the CATH hierarchy and several domain characteristics are presented for version 3.0. We also report an update of the CATH Dictionary of homologous structures (CATH-DHS) which now contains multiple structural alignments, consensus information and functional annotations for 1459 well populated superfamilies in CATH. CATH is directly linked to the Gene3D database which is a projection of CATH structural data onto approximately 2 million sequences in completed genomes and UniProt.

  • The CATH Domain Structure Database and related resources Gene3D and DHS provide comprehensive domain family information for genome analysis. [PMID: 15608188]

    Frances Pearl, Annabel Todd, Ian Sillitoe, Mark Dibley, Oliver Redfern, Tony Lewis, Christopher Bennett, Russell Marsden, Alistair Grant, David Lee, Adrian Akpor, Michael Maibaum, Andrew Harrison, Timothy Dallman, Gabrielle Reeves, Ilhem Diboun, Sarah Addou, Stefano Lise, Caroline Johnston, Antonio Sillero, Janet Thornton, Christine Orengo
    Nucleic acids research 2005:33(Database issue)
    303 Citations (Google Scholar as of 2017-02-15)

    Abstract: The CATH database of protein domain structures ( currently contains 43,229 domains classified into 1467 superfamilies and 5107 sequence families. Each structural family is expanded with sequence relatives from GenBank and completed genomes, using a variety of efficient sequence search protocols and reliable thresholds. This extended CATH protein family database contains 616,470 domain sequences classified into 23,876 sequence families. This results in the significant expansion of the CATH HMM model library to include models built from the CATH sequence relatives, giving a 10% increase in coverage for detecting remote homologues. An improved Dictionary of Homologous superfamilies (DHS) ( containing specific sequence, structural and functional information for each superfamily in CATH considerably assists manual validation of homologues. Information on sequence relatives in CATH superfamilies, GenBank and completed genomes is presented in the CATH associated DHS and Gene3D resources. Domain partnership information can be obtained from Gene3D ( A new CATH server has been implemented ( providing automatic classification of newly determined sequences and structures using a suite of rapid sequence and structure comparison methods. The statistical significance of matches is assessed and links are provided to the putative superfamily or fold group to which the query sequence or structure is assigned.

  • The CATH database: an extended protein family resource for structural and functional genomics. [PMID: 12520050]

    F M G Pearl, C F Bennett, J E Bray, A P Harrison, N Martin, A Shepherd, I Sillitoe, J Thornton, C A Orengo
    Nucleic acids research 2003:31(1)
    254 Citations (Google Scholar as of 2017-02-15)

    Abstract: The CATH database of protein domain structures ( currently contains 34 287 domain structures classified into 1383 superfamilies and 3285 sequence families. Each structural family is expanded with domain sequence relatives recruited from GenBank using a variety of efficient sequence search protocols and reliable thresholds. This extended resource, known as the CATH-protein family database (CATH-PFDB) contains a total of 310 000 domain sequences classified into 26 812 sequence families. New sequence search protocols have been designed, based on these intermediate sequence libraries, to allow more regular updating of the classification. Further developments include the adaptation of a recently developed method for rapid structure comparison, based on secondary structure matching, for domain boundary assignment. The philosophy behind CATHEDRAL is the recognition of recurrent folds already classified in CATH. Benchmarking of CATHEDRAL, using manually validated domain assignments, demonstrated that 43% of domains boundaries could be completely automatically assigned. This is an improvement on a previous consensus approach for which only 10-20% of domains could be reliably processed in a completely automated fashion. Since domain boundary assignment is a significant bottleneck in the classification of new structures, CATHEDRAL will also help to increase the frequency of CATH updates.

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Rate of accessibility:
HTTP status codeDate requested
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200 OK2017-11-17
200 OK2017-11-14
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200 OK2017-10-24
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200 OK2017-03-28
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200 OK2017-03-14
200 OK2017-03-10
200 OK2017-03-07
200 OK2017-03-03
200 OK2017-02-28
200 OK2017-02-24
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200 OK2017-02-17
200 OK2017-02-14
200 OK2017-02-10
200 OK2017-02-07
200 OK2017-02-03
200 OK2017-01-31
200 OK2017-01-27
200 OK2017-01-24
200 OK2017-01-20
200 OK2017-01-17
200 OK2017-01-13
200 OK2017-01-10
200 OK2017-01-06
200 OK2017-01-03
200 OK2016-12-30
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200 OK2016-12-23
200 OK2016-12-20
200 OK2016-12-16
200 OK2016-12-13
200 OK2016-12-09
200 OK2016-12-06
200 OK2016-12-02
200 OK2016-11-29
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200 OK2016-11-18
200 OK2016-11-15
200 OK2016-11-11
200 OK2016-11-08
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-1 Failed2016-10-28
200 OK2016-10-25
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200 OK2016-10-18
200 OK2016-10-14
200 OK2016-10-11
200 OK2016-10-07
200 OK2016-10-04
200 OK2016-09-30
200 OK2016-09-27
200 OK2016-09-23
200 OK2016-09-20
200 OK2016-09-16
200 OK2016-09-13
200 OK2016-09-09
200 OK2016-09-06
200 OK2016-09-02
200 OK2016-08-30
200 OK2016-08-26
200 OK2016-08-23
200 OK2016-08-19
200 OK2016-08-16
200 OK2016-08-12
200 OK2016-08-09
200 OK2016-08-05
200 OK2016-08-02
200 OK2016-07-29
200 OK2016-07-26
200 OK2016-07-22
200 OK2016-07-19
200 OK2016-07-15
200 OK2016-07-12
200 OK2016-07-08
200 OK2016-07-05
200 OK2016-07-01
200 OK2016-06-28
200 OK2016-06-24
200 OK2016-06-21
200 OK2016-06-17
200 OK2016-06-14
200 OK2016-06-10
200 OK2016-06-07
200 OK2016-06-03
200 OK2016-05-31
200 OK2016-05-27
200 OK2016-05-24
200 OK2016-05-20
200 OK2016-05-17
200 OK2016-05-13
200 OK2016-05-10
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200 OK2016-05-03
200 OK2016-04-29
200 OK2016-04-26
200 OK2016-04-22
200 OK2016-04-19
200 OK2016-04-15
200 OK2016-04-12
200 OK2016-04-08
200 OK2016-04-05
200 OK2016-04-01
200 OK2016-03-29
200 OK2016-03-28
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200 OK2016-03-23
200 OK2016-03-21
200 OK2016-03-18
200 OK2016-03-16
200 OK2016-03-14
200 OK2016-03-11
200 OK2016-03-09
200 OK2016-03-07
200 OK2016-03-04
200 OK2016-03-02
200 OK2016-02-29
200 OK2016-02-26
200 OK2016-02-24
200 OK2016-02-22
200 OK2016-02-19
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200 OK2016-02-15
200 OK2016-02-14
200 OK2016-02-12
200 OK2016-02-10
200 OK2016-02-08
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200 OK2016-02-05
200 OK2016-02-03
200 OK2016-02-01
200 OK2016-01-31
200 OK2016-01-29
200 OK2016-01-27
200 OK2016-01-25
200 OK2016-01-24
200 OK2016-01-22
200 OK2016-01-20
200 OK2016-01-18
200 OK2016-01-17
200 OK2016-01-15
200 OK2016-01-13
200 OK2016-01-11
200 OK2016-01-10
200 OK2016-01-08
200 OK2016-01-06
200 OK2016-01-04


Protein Structure
protein domain family

Record metadata

  • Created on: 2015-06-20
  • Curated by:
    • Lina Ma [2017-06-22]
    • Shixiang Sun [2017-02-15]
    • Zhang Zhang [2016-05-08]
    • Mengwei Li [2016-03-31]
    • Lina Ma [2015-11-17]
    • Mengwei Li [2015-06-29]
    • Mengwei Li [2015-06-27]