Database Commons a catalog of biological databases

Database Commons - AthaMap


Citations: 275

z-index 19.45

Short name AthaMap
Full name Arabidopsis thaliana Map
Description AthaMap provides a genome-wide map of potential transcription factor and small RNA binding sites in Arabidopsis thaliana.
Year founded 2010
Last update & version 2015-04-30    V 1.0
Availability Free to all users
University/Institution hosted Technical University of Braunschweig
Address Spielmannstr. 7, 38106, Braunschweig, Germany
City Braunschweig
Country/Region Germany
Contact name Reinhard Hehl
Contact email
Data type(s)
Major organism(s)
  • miRNA
  • small RNA binding site
  • transcription factor binding site
  • AthaMap web tools for the analysis of transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana. [PMID: 24792049]

    Reinhard Hehl, Lorenz Bülow
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 2014:1158
    8 Citations (Google Scholar as of 2016-01-19)

    Abstract: The AthaMap database provides a map of verified and predicted transcription factor (TF) and small RNA-binding sites for the A. thaliana genome. The database can be used for bioinformatic predictions of putative regulatory sites. Several online web tools are available that address specific questions. Starting with the identification of transcription factor-binding sites (TFBS) in any gene of interest, colocalizing TFBS can be identified as well as common TFBS in a set of user-provided genes. Furthermore, genes can be identified that are potentially targeted by specific transcription factors or small inhibitory RNAs. This chapter provides detailed information on how each AthaMap web tool can be used online. Examples on how this database is used to address questions in circadian and diurnal regulation are given. Furthermore, complementary databases and databases that go beyond questions addressed with AthaMap are discussed.

  • 'MicroRNA Targets', a new AthaMap web-tool for genome-wide identification of miRNA targets in Arabidopsis thaliana. [PMID: 22800758]

    Lorenz Bülow, Julio C Bolívar, Jonas Ruhe, Yuri Brill, Reinhard Hehl
    BioData mining 2012:5(1)
    10 Citations (Google Scholar as of 2016-01-19)

    Abstract: The AthaMap database generates a genome-wide map for putative transcription factor binding sites for A. thaliana. When analyzing transcriptional regulation using AthaMap it may be important to learn which genes are also post-transcriptionally regulated by inhibitory RNAs. Therefore, a unified database for transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation will be highly useful for the analysis of gene expression regulation. To identify putative microRNA target sites in the genome of A. thaliana, processed mature miRNAs from 243 annotated miRNA genes were used for screening with the psRNATarget web server. Positional information, target genes and the psRNATarget score for each target site were annotated to the AthaMap database. Furthermore, putative target sites for small RNAs from seven small RNA transcriptome datasets were used to determine small RNA target sites within the A. thaliana genome. Putative 41,965 genome wide miRNA target sites and 10,442 miRNA target genes were identified in the A. thaliana genome. Taken together with genes targeted by small RNAs from small RNA transcriptome datasets, a total of 16,600 A. thaliana genes are putatively regulated by inhibitory RNAs. A novel web-tool, 'MicroRNA Targets', was integrated into AthaMap which permits the identification of genes predicted to be regulated by selected miRNAs. The predicted target genes are displayed with positional information and the psRNATarget score of the target site. Furthermore, putative target sites of small RNAs from selected tissue datasets can be identified with the new 'Small RNA Targets' web-tool. The integration of predicted miRNA and small RNA target sites with transcription factor binding sites will be useful for AthaMap-assisted gene expression analysis. URL:

  • AthaMap-assisted transcription factor target gene identification in Arabidopsis thaliana. [PMID: 21177332]

    Lorenz Bülow, Yuri Brill, Reinhard Hehl
    Database : the journal of biological databases and curation 2010:2010
    26 Citations (Google Scholar as of 2016-01-18)

    Abstract: The AthaMap database generates a map of potential transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) and small RNA target sites in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome. The database contains sites for 115 different transcription factors (TFs). TFBS were identified with positional weight matrices (PWMs) or with single binding sites. With the new web tool 'Gene Identification', it is possible to identify potential target genes for selected TFs. For these analyses, the user can define a region of interest of up to 6000?bp in all annotated genes. For TFBS determined with PWMs, the search can be restricted to high-quality TFBS. The results are displayed in tables that identify the gene, position of the TFBS and, if applicable, individual score of the TFBS. In addition, data files can be downloaded that harbour positional information of TFBS of all TFs in a region between -2000 and +2000?bp relative to the transcription or translation start site. Also, data content of AthaMap was increased and the database was updated to the TAIR8 genome release. Database URL:

  • AthaMap, integrating transcriptional and post-transcriptional data. [PMID: 18842622]

    Lorenz Bülow, Stefan Engelmann, Martin Schindler, Reinhard Hehl
    Nucleic acids research 2009:37(Database issue)
    43 Citations (Google Scholar as of 2016-01-19)

    Abstract: The AthaMap database generates a map of predicted transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) for the whole Arabidopsis thaliana genome. AthaMap has now been extended to include data on post-transcriptional regulation. A total of 403,173 genomic positions of small RNAs have been mapped in the A. thaliana genome. These identify 5772 putative post-transcriptionally regulated target genes. AthaMap tools have been modified to improve the identification of common TFBS in co-regulated genes by subtracting post-transcriptionally regulated genes from such analyses. Furthermore, AthaMap was updated to the TAIR7 genome annotation, a graphic display of gene analysis results was implemented, and the TFBS data content was increased. AthaMap is freely available at

  • AthaMap web tools for the analysis and identification of co-regulated genes. [PMID: 17148485]

    Claudia Galuschka, Martin Schindler, Lorenz Bülow, Reinhard Hehl
    Nucleic acids research 2007:35(Database issue)
    44 Citations (Google Scholar as of 2016-01-19)

    Abstract: The AthaMap database generates a map of cis-regulatory elements for the whole Arabidopsis thaliana genome. This database has been extended by new tools to identify common cis-regulatory elements in specific regions of user-provided gene sets. A resulting table displays all cis-regulatory elements annotated in AthaMap including positional information relative to the respective gene. Further tables show overviews with the number of individual transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) present and TFBS common to the whole set of genes. Over represented cis-elements are easily identified. These features were used to detect specific enrichment of drought-responsive elements in cold-induced genes. For identification of co-regulated genes, the output table of the colocalization function was extended to show the closest genes and their relative distances to the colocalizing TFBS. Gene sets determined by this function can be used for a co-regulation analysis in microarray gene expression databases such as Genevestigator or PathoPlant. Additional improvements of AthaMap include display of the gene structure in the sequence window and a significant data increase. AthaMap is freely available at

  • AthaMap: from in silico data to real transcription factor binding sites. [PMID: 16922688]

    Lorenz Bülow, Nils Ole Steffens, Claudia Galuschka, Martin Schindler, Reinhard Hehl
    In silico biology 2006:6(3)
    28 Citations (Google Scholar as of 2016-01-20)

    Abstract: AthaMap generates a map for cis-regulatory sequences for the whole Arabidopsis thaliana genome. AthaMap was initially developed by matrix-based detection of putative transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) mostly determined from random binding site selection experiments. Now, also experimentally verified TFBS have been included for 48 different Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factors (TF). Based on these sequences, 89,416 very similar putative TFBS were determined within the genome of A. thaliana and annotated to AthaMap. Matrix- and single sequence-based binding sites can be included in colocalization analysis for the identification of combinatorial cis-regulatory elements. As an example, putative target genes of the WRKY18 transcription factor that is involved in plant-pathogen interaction were determined. New functions of AthaMap include descriptions for all annotated Arabidopsis thaliana genes and direct links to TAIR, TIGR and MIPS. Transcription factors used in the binding site determination are linked to TAIR and TRANSFAC databases. AthaMap is freely available at

  • AthaMap web tools for database-assisted identification of combinatorial cis-regulatory elements and the display of highly conserved transcription factor binding sites in Arabidopsis thaliana. [PMID: 15980498]

    Nils Ole Steffens, Claudia Galuschka, Martin Schindler, Lorenz Bülow, Reinhard Hehl
    Nucleic acids research 2005:33(Web Server issue)
    38 Citations (Google Scholar as of 2016-01-20)

    Abstract: The AthaMap database generates a map of cis-regulatory elements for the Arabidopsis thaliana genome. AthaMap contains more than 7.4 x 10(6) putative binding sites for 36 transcription factors (TFs) from 16 different TF families. A newly implemented functionality allows the display of subsets of higher conserved transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs). Furthermore, a web tool was developed that permits a user-defined search for co-localizing cis-regulatory elements. The user can specify individually the level of conservation for each TFBS and a spacer range between them. This web tool was employed for the identification of co-localizing sites of known interacting TFs and TFs containing two DNA-binding domains. More than 1.8 x 10(5) combinatorial elements were annotated in the AthaMap database. These elements can also be used to identify more complex co-localizing elements consisting of up to four TFBSs. The AthaMap database and the connected web tools are a valuable resource for the analysis and the prediction of gene expression regulation at

  • AthaMap: an online resource for in silico transcription factor binding sites in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome. [PMID: 14681436]

    Nils Ole Steffens, Claudia Galuschka, Martin Schindler, Lorenz Bülow, Reinhard Hehl
    Nucleic acids research 2004:32(Database issue)
    78 Citations (Google Scholar as of 2016-01-20)

    Abstract: Gene expression is controlled mainly by the binding of transcription factors to regulatory sequences. To generate a genomic map for regulatory sequences, the Arabidopsis thaliana genome was screened for putative transcription factor binding sites. Using publicly available data from the TRANSFAC database and from publications, alignment matrices for 23 transcription factors of 13 different factor families were used with the pattern search program Patser to determine the genomic positions of more than 2.4 x 10(6) putative binding sites. Due to the dense clustering of genes and the observation that regulatory sequences are not restricted to upstream regions, the prediction of binding sites was performed for the whole genome. The genomic positions and the underlying data were imported into the newly developed AthaMap database. This data can be accessed by positional information or the Arabidopsis Genome Initiative identification number. Putative binding sites are displayed in the defined region. Data on the matrices used and on the thresholds applied in these screens are given in the database. Considering the high density of sites it will be a valuable resource for generating models on gene expression regulation. The data are available at

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Rate of accessibility:
HTTP status codeDate requested
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200 OK2016-06-10
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200 OK2016-01-15
200 OK2016-01-13
200 OK2016-01-11
200 OK2016-01-10
200 OK2016-01-08
200 OK2016-01-06
200 OK2016-01-04


DNA Interaction and Network
Arabidopsis thaliana
miRNA small RNA binding site transcription factor binding site

Record metadata

  • Created on: 2015-06-20
  • Curated by:
    • Lina Ma [2016-09-23]
    • Mengwei Li [2016-03-31]
    • Mengwei Li [2015-11-27]
    • Mengwei Li [2015-06-28]
    • Mengwei Li [2015-06-26]